Dr. Heena Chawla
Pelvic Pain: What causes pelvic pain?
In this video SimpliHealth expert gynaecologist Dr. Heena Chawla is explaining about pelvic pain and also she answered some questions that people usually ask like:
- Causes of pelvic pain
- Types of pelvic pain
- Acute pelvic pain
- Chronic pelvic pain
In simple terms, the pain in the lower tummy is usually pelvic pain. This could be because of gynaecology and non-gynecological reasons.
Non-gynecological reasons could be Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) or Interstitial cystitis, bladder infections, appendix, or there can be some other cause of this pain.
There are a number of gynaecological reasons for this pain. There are two types of pain that can be caused, acute and chronic. Chronic pain persists for more than 6 months in a row. This pain is not only during periods but otherwise as well.
Acute Pelvic Pain
- Periods: Acute pain can arise in different conditions. In this new generation, young females experience severe pain during periods. This pain during periods is called Dysmenorrhea. This pain is sometimes so much that the patient has to get an injection to relieve the pain.
- Ovulation: Besides this, some may even experience acute pain on one side of the abdomen during ovulation. Which is the 12th or 14th day of the cycle when the egg ruptures from the follicle. It is called mittelschmerz syndrome. Some may feel it a little and some would not feel it at all.
- Abortion: The third reason for this pain can be when after the pregnancy, during an abortion. In this, there is acute severe pain along with bleeding. Or, it would pain before clots and the process of abortion. It is also called threatened abortion.
- Pregnancy: Another reason is ectopic pregnancy. In this condition, the baby does not develop in the uterus but grows in the tubes or ovaries.
- Ovarian Cyst: Acute pain can be felt if the cyst in your ovaries twists. This twist is called torsion. And due to twisting the blood supply to it breaks and that causes acute pain. This torsion or rupture is another common reason for acute pain seen in women.
- Urinary Tract Infection: It is seen in women who have UTIs and also experience acute pain in the lower abdominal area. This distressing pain is due to inflammation.
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: In Pelvic Inflammatory Disease there is inflammation in the entire pelvic region. This can cause pain and vaginal discharge. In some women, this can be treated with medications and in some, this pain persists and becomes chronic pain.
Chronic Pelvic Pain
Now we will talk about chronic pelvic pain. It is not talked about so frequently but a lot of females suffer from it. This can have a number of causes.
Chronic Pelvic Pain Causes
- Endometriosis: The most common cause that we see in our OPD practice is endometriosis. In this, the innermost layer of the uterus, the endometrium, starts growing outside the uterus. It starts growing on the ovaries, the bowl, or sometimes it reaches the urinary bladder. The places where it grows, start to stick together. We call this adhesion. When the organs stick together they cause severe pain. The pain is so severe that the female with this problem cannot even carry out her everyday tasks during periods.
- Fibroids: The other very common reason is fibroids. When the fibroids grow in size, they cause heavy bleeding along with severe and gradually increasing pain.
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID): Besides this, as we talked about before, a lot of patients suffer from pelvic inflammatory disease. Also called PID. There is continuous vaginal discharge. Sometimes this infection ascends. It reaches the tubes. Therefore the pain is persistent.
- Ovarian Cyst: If any ovarian cyst has persisted for a very long time, the pain increases gradually.
- Adenomyosis: There is another problem, which we also call endometriosis interna. In this, the blood is collected somewhere in the muscle layer of the uterus. And then during periods, it gives such a stretching sensation that it hurts a lot. This pain restricts you from doing any work.
- Previous surgeries: There are patients who have gone under surgery. So somewhere the pain of the surgery scares the pain persists.
- Cancer: Now there are a few cancer patients. In the early stage, they may not feel the pain, but as cancer grows the pain persists.
So all of these are the causes of chronic pelvic pain.
So, in the end, I would suggest that you consult a gynaecologist. Do not suffer, get diagnosed. There are simple blood and ultrasound investigations to diagnose the conclusion. After diagnosis, get your treatment accordingly.